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ASP.NET Core 2 Hosting - Create ASP.NET Chart Control from Database using C#

clock August 10, 2018 11:11 by author Kenny

In this article I will explain with an example, how you can display charts in ASP.Net using new Chart Control.

Web.Config Modifications

You will need to modify the Web.Config file as following shown in order to use the ASP.Net 4.0 Chart control.

<configuration>
    <appSettings>
        <add key="ChartImageHandler" value="storage=file;timeout=20;" />
    </appSettings>
    <connectionStrings>
        <add name="conString"
        connectionString="Data Source=.\SQL2005;database=Northwind;Integrated Security=true"/>
    </connectionStrings>
 
    <system.web>
        <compilation debug="true" targetFramework="4.0">
            <assemblies>
                <add assembly="System.Web.DataVisualization, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35"/>
            </assemblies>
        </compilation>
        <httpHandlers>
            <add path="ChartImg.axd" verb="GET,HEAD,POST" type="System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting.ChartHttpHandler, System.Web.DataVisualization, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35" validate="false"/>
        </httpHandlers>
        <pages>
            <controls>
                <add tagPrefix="asp" namespace="System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting" assembly="System.Web.DataVisualization, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"/>
            </controls>
        </pages>
    </system.web>
    <system.webServer>
        <handlers>
            <remove name="ChartImageHandler"/>
            <add name="ChartImageHandler" preCondition="integratedMode" verb="GET,HEAD,POST" path="ChartImg.axd" type="System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting.ChartHttpHandler, System.Web.DataVisualization, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"/>
        </handlers>
    </system.webServer>
</configuration>

HTML Markup

Below is the HTML Markup of the page. It has an ASP.Net DropDownList and an ASP.Net Chart Control. The DropDownList is populated with countries and when a country is selected, the chart is populated with the statistics of orders of different cities in the selected country.

<asp:DropDownList ID="ddlCountries" runat="server" OnSelectedIndexChanged="ddlCountries_SelectedIndexChanged"
    AutoPostBack = "true">
</asp:DropDownList><hr />
<asp:Chart ID="Chart1" runat="server" Height="300px" Width="400px" Visible = "false">
    <Titles>
        <asp:Title ShadowOffset="3" Name="Items" />
    </Titles>
    <Legends>
        <asp:Legend Alignment="Center" Docking="Bottom" IsTextAutoFit="False" Name="Default" LegendStyle="Row" />
    </Legends>
    <Series>
        <asp:Series Name="Default" />
    </Series>
    <ChartAreas>
        <asp:ChartArea Name="ChartArea1" BorderWidth="0" />
    </ChartAreas>
</asp:Chart>

Namespaces

You will need to import the following Namespaces.

C#

using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
using System.Configuration;

Populating the DropDownList and Chart

Inside the Page Load event, the DropDownList is populated with Countries from the Orders table of the Northwind database. When a Country is selected in the DropDownList, the statistical records of Ship Cities and their Total Orders are fetched from the Orders table. The Ship City values are assigned to the X point values of the Chart while the Total Orders value for the Ship Cities are assigned to the Y point values of the Chart. Finally using these values the Chart is populated and displayed.

C#

protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    if (!IsPostBack)
    {
        string query = "select distinct shipcountry from orders";
        DataTable dt = GetData(query);
        ddlCountries.DataSource = dt;
        ddlCountries.DataTextField = "shipcountry";
        ddlCountries.DataValueField = "shipcountry";
        ddlCountries.DataBind();
        ddlCountries.Items.Insert(0, new ListItem("Select", ""));
    }
}
  
protected void ddlCountries_SelectedIndexChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    Chart1.Visible = ddlCountries.SelectedValue != "";
    string query = string.Format("select shipcity, count(orderid) from orders where shipcountry = '{0}' group by shipcity", ddlCountries.SelectedValue);
    DataTable dt = GetData(query);
    string[] x = new string[dt.Rows.Count];
    int[] y = new int[dt.Rows.Count];
    for (int i = 0; i < dt.Rows.Count; i++)
    {
        x[i] = dt.Rows[i][0].ToString();
        y[i] = Convert.ToInt32(dt.Rows[i][1]);
    }
    Chart1.Series[0].Points.DataBindXY(x, y);
    Chart1.Series[0].ChartType = SeriesChartType.Pie;
    Chart1.ChartAreas["ChartArea1"].Area3DStyle.Enable3D = true;
    Chart1.Legends[0].Enabled = true;
}
 
private static DataTable GetData(string query)
{
    DataTable dt = new DataTable();
    SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(query);
    String constr = ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["ConString"].ConnectionString;
    SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(constr);
    SqlDataAdapter sda = new SqlDataAdapter();
    cmd.CommandType = CommandType.Text;
    cmd.Connection = con;
    sda.SelectCommand = cmd;
    sda.Fill(dt);
    return dt;
}

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ASP.NET Core 2 Hosting - How to Secure Your .NET Core 2.0 Web App

clock August 3, 2018 11:29 by author Kenny

Configuring ASP.NET Core to require authentication

Imagine we’re starting with an ASP.NET Core 2.0 MVC application (with no authentication mechanism configured).

You can grab the code we’re about to go through and take a look for yourself using the next link.

Get the code: Simple Authentication using ASP.NET Core 2.0
The first step is to enable authentication for our site, which we can do by modifying startup.cs.

We can start by adding the relevant Authentication services to our application.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme)
        .AddCookie(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme,
            options =>
            {
                options.LoginPath = new PathString("/auth/login");
                options.AccessDeniedPath = new PathString("/auth/denied");
            });
     // ---------------
     // rest of configureServices code goes here...
}

We’re going to stick with cookies for now. This means our logged in users will get a cookie in their browser, which gets passed to our app on every request, indicating that they are authenticated.

Notice how we’ve configured two paths, the path to the login page (where we can send unauthenticated people when they try to access a restricted area) and the path to an access denied page (useful for when they inevitably enter incorrect credentials).

We also need to tell our app to go ahead and actually enable authentication. Happily, this is very very simple in .NET Core 2…

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
    app.UseAuthentication();
    // ---------------
    // rest of configure code goes here...
}

Just another Login form

So now our app knows we’re going to be using authentication, but there’s more work to be done.

We need a way to identify our users, the common way being to ask them for a username and password.

Login forms are straightforward enough, here’s one to get us started.

<h2>Hmm, looks like you need to log in</h2>
<form asp-controller="Auth" asp-action="Login" method="post">
    <label for="username">Username</label>
    <input id="username" name="username" type="text"/>
    <label for="password">Password</label>
    <input id="password" name="password" type="password" />
    <button type="submit">Log me in</button>
</form>

If we’re using the default routing for MVC, you’ll want to create an AuthController with a Login action that returns this view.

If you’re not familiar with them, the asp- attributes are tag helpers, new to ASP.NET core, which make it easier to link your html to your ASP.NET MVC controllers. Read more about tag helpers here.

In this example, the form contents will be posted to the Login action on an Auth controller.

A word to the wise, if you start with an empty web app project you’ll find that Tag Helpers don’t work automatically.

The easiest way to get them working is to create a _ViewImports.cshtml file and add this line to it…

@addTagHelper *, Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.TagHelpers

If you start with one of the other starter templates you’ll probably find this file is created for you.

The logging in bit

To keep this super, super simple, we’ll opt to hard-code a username and password for now.

If our users enter the correct combination, they’ll be logged in, with full access to “locked down” parts of the application.

Now let’s be honest, hardcoded usernames and passwords are somewhat limiting (and not at all secure if your code ends up in a public Github repo) but they do tackle our urgent requirement to provide a mechanism for users to log in, and gain access to parts of the site that will be unavailable to Joe Public.

This falls into the camp of “doing the simplest possible thing first”, so you can start to build up momentum with your new app, rather than getting bogged down in building your own user management system from day one.

The login form will post to this controller action…

[HttpPost, ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
public async Task<IActionResult> Login(string returnUrl, string username, string password)
{
    if (username == "Jon" && password == "ABitSimplisticForProductionUseThis...")
    {
        var claims = new List<Claim>
        {
            new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, "jon", ClaimValueTypes.String, "
https://yourdomain.com")
        };
        var userIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity(claims, "SecureLogin");
        var userPrincipal = new ClaimsPrincipal(userIdentity);
        await HttpContext.SignInAsync(CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme,
            userPrincipal,
            new AuthenticationProperties
            {
                ExpiresUtc = DateTime.UtcNow.AddMinutes(20),
                IsPersistent = false,
                AllowRefresh = false
            });
        return GoToReturnUrl(returnUrl);
    }
    return RedirectToAction(nameof(Denied));
}

There’s our super insecure hardcoded username/password check (as discussed).

We’ve opted to use claims-based security.

In the most basic sense, you can think of Claims as pieces of information about your user. In this case we’re simply storing the user’s name in a claim, which we then attach to an identity for the user.

This identity is the representation of your user that ASP.NET core can interrogate, to find out anything it needs to know.

You can assign many claims to one identity, but ASP.NET Core requires the name claim as a minimum requirement (it will error if you don’t assign one).

Next up we create a user principal. If this is your first foray into ASP.NET Core authentication then this can be a little confusing, but it’s worth noting you could have more than one identity and attach them all to the same principal.

We’ve no need to handle multiple identities for the same user yet, so we can move along to the SignInAsync method on the HTTPContext, which logs our user in.

In practice, this creates an encrypted cookie holding the user’s information (the Claims Principal). From here on (until they exit the browser) your user is authenticated.

Because we’ve set IsPersistent to false, the cookie will be lost when our user exits their browser, and will have to log in again next time they come to the site.

If you want to see what that cookie looks like, check out the Application > Cookies window in Chrome (you’ll find a similar view in other browsers) and you’ll find it there, called .AspNetCore.Cookies.
Once they’re logged in, the user is redirected to the original page they requested, or the home page. You can do this with a simple helper method.

private IActionResult GoToReturnUrl(string returnUrl)
{
    if (Url.IsLocalUrl(returnUrl))
    {
        return Redirect(returnUrl);
    }
    return RedirectToAction("Index", "Home");
}

No access for you

This is all well and good, but currently there’s no reason for anyone to log in to the site, because nothing is locked down.

Let’s remedy that by restricting access to the main homepage for the app.

[Authorize]
public class HomeController : Controller
{
    public IActionResult Index()
    {
        return View();
    }
}

The [Authorize] attribute will trigger ASP.NET Core to redirect any users who aren’t logged in (don’t have an auth cookie) to the login page (that we configured in startup.cs).

It’s all about you

So that’s almost the entire process. But it would be nice to greet the user by name.

We’ll do this on our main index view…

<h1>Hi @User.Identity.Name, you're in the club.</h1>    

Let me out of here

Finally, we should probably let them log out, if they so wish.

All this needs is a simple form.

<form asp-controller="Auth" asp-action="Logout">
    <button type="submit">Log out</button>
</form>
And controller action.
public async Task<IActionResult> Logout()
{
    await HttpContext.SignOutAsync();
    return RedirectToAction(nameof(Login));
}

Best ASP.NET Hosting Recommendation
 

ASPHostPortal.com provides its customers with Plesk Panel, one of the most popular and stable control panels for Windows hosting, as free. You could also see the latest .NET framework, a crazy amount of functionality as well as Large disk space, bandwidth, MSSQL databases and more. All those give people the convenience to build up a powerful site in Windows server. ASPHostPortal.com offers ASP.NET hosting starts from $1/month only. They also guarantees 30 days money back and guarantee 99.9% uptime. If you need a reliable affordable ASP.NET Hosting, ASPHostPortal.com should be your best choice.



ASP.NET Core 2 Hosting - How to Use Bootstrap 4 in ASP.NET Core

clock July 31, 2018 08:47 by author Kenny

 So although you can still use it right now, Bootstrap has also announced to drop support for it. As a result, the built-in ASP.NET Core templates are slowly being edited to move away from it too.

Unfortunately, there is no clear path forward. This is mostly due to the fact that web applications are continuously moving further into the client-side, requiring complex client-side build systems and many dependencies. So if you are building something like that, you might already know how to solve this then, and you can expand your existing build process to simply also include Bootstrap and jQuery there.

But there are still many web applications out there that are not that heavy on the client-side, where the application still runs mainly on the server and the server serves static views as a result. Bower previously filled this by making it easy to just publish client-side dependencies without that much of a process.

In the .NET world we also have NuGet and with previous ASP.NET versions, we could use NuGet as well to add dependencies to some client-side dependencies since NuGet would just place the content into our project correctly. Unfortunately, with the new .csproj format and the new NuGet, installed packages are located outside of our project, so we cannot simply reference those.

This leaves us with a few options how to add our dependencies:

One-time installation

This is what the ASP.NET Core templates, that are not single-page applications, are currently doing. When you use those to create a new application, the wwwroot folder simply contains a folder lib that contains the dependencies:

If you look closely at the files currently, you can see that they were originally placed there with Bower to create the template, but that is likely to change soon. The basic idea is that the files are copied once to the wwwroot folder so you can depend on them.

To do this, we can simply follow Bootstrap’s introduction and download the compiled files directly. As mentioned on the download site, this does not include jQuery, so we need to download that separately too; it does contain Popper.js though if we choose to use the bootstrap.bundle file later—which we will do. For jQuery, we can simply get a single "compressed, production" file from the download site.

This leaves us with a few files which will simply extract and copy into the wwwroot folder. We can also make a lib folder to make it clearer that these are external dependencies:

That’s all we need, so now we just need to adjust our _Layout.cshtml file to include those dependencies. For that, we add the following block to the <head>:

<environment include="Development">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="~/lib/css/bootstrap.css" />
</environment>
<environment exclude="Development">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="~/lib/css/bootstrap.min.css" />
</environment>

And the following block at the very end of the <body>:

<environment include="Development">
<script src="~/lib/js/jquery-3.3.1.js"></script>
<script src="~/lib/js/bootstrap.bundle.js"></script>
</environment>
<environment exclude="Development">
<script src="~/lib/js/jquery-3.3.1.min.js"></script>
<script src="~/lib/js/bootstrap.bundle.min.js"></script>
</environment>

You can also just include the minified versions and skip the <environment> tag helpers here to make it a bit simpler. But that’s all you need to do to keep you starting.

Dependencies from NPM

The more modern way, also if you want to keep your dependencies updated, would be to get the dependencies from the NPM package repository. You can use either NPM or Yarn for this; in my example, I’ll use NPM.

To start off, we need to create a package.json file for our project, so we can specify our dependencies. To do this, we simply do that from the "Add New Item" dialog:

Once we have that, we need to edit it to include our dependencies. It should something look like this:

{
"version": "1.0.0",
"name": "asp.net",
"private": true,
"devDependencies": {
"bootstrap": "4.0.0",
"jquery": "3.3.1",
"popper.js": "1.12.9"
}
}

By saving, Visual Studio will already run NPM to install the dependencies for us. They will be installed into the node_modules folder. So what is left to do is to get the files from there into our wwwroot folder. There are a few options to do that:

bundleconfig.json for bundling and minification

We can use one of the various ways to consume a bundleconfig.json for bundling and minification, as explained in the documentation. A very easy way is to simply use the BuildBundlerMinifier NuGet package which automatically sets up a build task for this.

After installing that package, we need to create a bundleconfig.json at the root of the project with the following contents:

[
{
"outputFileName": "wwwroot/vendor.min.css",
"inputFiles": [
"node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"
],
"minify": { "enabled": false }
},
{
"outputFileName": "wwwroot/vendor.min.js",
"inputFiles": [
"node_modules/jquery/dist/jquery.min.js",
"node_modules/popper.js/dist/umd/popper.min.js",
"node_modules/bootstrap/dist/js/bootstrap.min.js"
],
"minify": { "enabled": false }
}
]

This basically configures which files to combine into what. And when we build, we can see that the vendor.min.css and vendor.js.css are created correctly. So all we need to do is to adjust our _Layouts.html again to include those files:

<!-- inside <head> -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="~/vendor.min.css" />
<!-- at the end of <body> -->
<script src="~/vendor.min.js"></script>

Using a task manager like Gulp

If we want to move a bit more into client-side development, we can also start to use tools that we would use there. For example Webpack which is a very commonly used build tool for really everything. But we can also start with a simpler task manager like Gulp and do the few necessary steps ourselves.

For that, we add a gulpfile.js into our project root, with the following contents:

const gulp = require('gulp');
const concat = require('gulp-concat');
const vendorStyles = [
"node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"
];
const vendorScripts = [
"node_modules/jquery/dist/jquery.min.js",
"node_modules/popper.js/dist/umd/popper.min.js",
"node_modules/bootstrap/dist/js/bootstrap.min.js",
];
gulp.task('default', ['build-vendor']);
gulp.task('build-vendor', ['build-vendor-css', 'build-vendor-js']);
gulp.task('build-vendor-css', () => {
return gulp.src(vendorStyles)
.pipe(concat('vendor.min.css'))
.pipe(gulp.dest('wwwroot'));
});
gulp.task('build-vendor-js', () => {
return gulp.src(vendorScripts)
.pipe(concat('vendor.min.js'))
.pipe(gulp.dest('wwwroot'));
});

Now, we also need to adjust our package.json to have dependencies on gulp and gulp-concat:

{
"version": "1.0.0",
"name": "asp.net",
"private": true,
"devDependencies": {
"bootstrap": "4.0.0",
"gulp": "^3.9.1",
"gulp-concat": "^2.6.1",
"jquery": "3.3.1",
"popper.js": "1.12.9"
}
}

Finally, we edit our .csproj to add the following task which makes sure that our Gulp task runs when we build the project:

<Target Name="RunGulp" BeforeTargets="Build">
<Exec Command="node_modules\.bin\gulp.cmd" />
</Target>

Now, when we build, the default Gulp task runs, which runs the build-vendor tasks, which then builds our vendor.min.css and vendor.min.js just like we did before. So after adjusting our _Layout.cshtml just like above, we can make use of jQuery and Bootstrap.

While the initial setup of Gulp is a bit more complicated than the bundleconfig.json one above, we have now have entered the Node-world and can start to make use of all the other cool tools there. So it might be worth to start with this.

Best ASP.NET Hosting Recommendation

ASPHostPortal.com provides its customers with Plesk Panel, one of the most popular and stable control panels for Windows hosting, as free. You could also see the latest .NET framework, a crazy amount of functionality as well as Large disk space, bandwidth, MSSQL databases and more. All those give people the convenience to build up a powerful site in Windows server. ASPHostPortal.com offers ASP.NET hosting starts from $1/month only. They also guarantees 30 days money back and guarantee 99.9% uptime. If you need a reliable affordable ASP.NET Hosting, ASPHostPortal.com should be your best choice.



ASP.NET Core 2 Hosting - Creating A GraphQL Endpoint in ASP.NET Core

clock July 24, 2018 08:25 by author Kenny

The Graph Query Language

The GraphQL was invented by Facebook in 2012 and released to the public in 2015. It is a query language to tell the API exactly about the data you wanna have. This is the difference between REST, where you need to query different resources/URIs to get different data. In GrapgQL there is one single point of access about the data you want to retrieve.

That also makes the planning about the API a little more complex. You need to think about what data you wanna provide and you need to think about how you wanna provide that data.

While playing around with it, I created a small book database. The idea is to provide data about books and authors.

Let's have a look into few examples. The query to get the book number and the name of a specific book looks like this.

{
book(isbn: "822-5-315140-65-3"){
isbn,
name
}
}

This look similar to JSON but it isn't. The property names are not set in quotes, which means it is not really a JavaScript Object Notation. This query need to be sent inside the body of an POST request to the server.

The Query gets parsed and executed against a data source on the server and the server should send the result back to the client:

{
"data": {
"book": {
"isbn": "822-5-315140-65-3",
"name": "ultrices enim mauris parturient a"
}
}
}

If we want to know something about the author, we need to ask about it:

{
book(isbn: "822-5-315140-65-3"){
isbn,
name,
author{
id,
name,
birthdate
}
}
}

This is the possible result:

{
"data": {
"book": {
"isbn": "822-5-315140-65-3",
"name": "ultrices enim mauris parturient a",
"author": {
"id": 71,
"name": "Henderson",
"birthdate": "1937-03-20T06:58:44Z"
}
}
}
}

You need a list of books, including the authors? Just ask for it:

{
books{
isbn,
name,
author{
id,
name,
birthdate
}
}
}

The list is too large? Just limit the result, to get only 20 items:

{
books(limit: 20) {
isbn,
name,
author{
id,
name,
birthdate
}
}
}

The Book Database

The book database is just fake. I love to use GenFu to generate dummy data. So I did the same for the books and the authors and created a BookRepository:

public class BookRepository : IBookRepository
{
private IEnumerable<Book> _books = new List<Book>();
private IEnumerable<Author> _authors = new List<Author>();
public BookRepository()
{
GenFu.GenFu.Configure<Author>()
.Fill(_ => _.Name).AsLastName()
.Fill(_=>_.Birthdate).AsPastDate();
_authors = A.ListOf<Author>(40);
GenFu.GenFu.Configure<Book>()
.Fill(p => p.Isbn).AsISBN()
.Fill(p => p.Name).AsLoremIpsumWords(5)
.Fill(p => p.Author).WithRandom(_authors);
_books = A.ListOf<Book>(100);
}
public IEnumerable<Author> AllAuthors()
{
return _authors;
}
public IEnumerable<Book> AllBooks()
{
return _books;
}
public Author AuthorById(int id)
{
return _authors.First(_ => _.Id == id);
}
public Book BookByIsbn(string isbn)
{
return _books.First(_ => _.Isbn == isbn);
}
}
public static class StringFillerExtensions
{
public static GenFuConfigurator<T> AsISBN<T>(
this GenFuStringConfigurator<T> configurator) where T : new()
{
var filler = new CustomFiller<string>(
configurator.PropertyInfo.Name, 
typeof(T), 
() =>
{
return MakeIsbn();
});
configurator.Maggie.RegisterFiller(filler);
return configurator;
}

public static string MakeIsbn()
{
// 978-1-933988-27-6
var a = A.Random.Next(100, 999);
var b = A.Random.Next(1, 9);
var c = A.Random.Next(100000, 999999);
var d = A.Random.Next(10, 99);
var e = A.Random.Next(1, 9);
return $"{a}-{b}-{c}-{d}-{e}";
}
}

GenFu provides a useful set of so called fillers to generate data randomly. There are fillers to generate URLs, emails, names, last names, states of US and Canada and so on. I also need a ISBN generator, so I created one by extending the generic GenFuStringConfigurator.

The BookRepository is registered as a singleton in the Dependency Injection container, to work with the same set of data while the application is running. You are able to add some more information to that repository, like publishers and so on.

GraphQL in ASP.NET Core

Fortunately there is a .NET Standard compatible implementation of the GraphQL on GitHub. So there's no need to parse the Queries by yourself. This library is also available as a NuGet package:

<PackageReference Include="GraphQL" Version="0.15.1.678" />

The examples provided on GitHub, are pretty easy. They directly write the result to the output, which means the entire ASP.NET Applications is a GraphQL server. But I want to add GraphQL as a ASP.NET Core MiddleWare, to add the GraphQL implementation as a different part of the Application. Like this you are able to use REST based POST and PUT request to add or update the data and to use the GraphQL to query the data.

I also want that the middleware is listening to the sub path "/graph"

public class GraphQlMiddleware
{
private readonly RequestDelegate _next;
private readonly IBookRepository _bookRepository;
public GraphQlMiddleware(RequestDelegate next, IBookRepository bookRepository)
{
_next = next;
_bookRepository = bookRepository;
}
public async Task Invoke(HttpContext httpContext)
{
var sent = false;
if (httpContext.Request.Path.StartsWithSegments("/graph"))
{
using (var sr = new StreamReader(httpContext.Request.Body))
{
var query = await sr.ReadToEndAsync();
if (!String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(query))
{
var schema = new Schema { Query = new BooksQuery(_bookRepository) };
var result = await new DocumentExecuter()
.ExecuteAsync(options =>
{
options.Schema = schema;
options.Query = query;
}).ConfigureAwait(false);
CheckForErrors(result);
await WriteResult(httpContext, result);
sent = true;
}
}
}
if (!sent)
{
await _next(httpContext);
}
}
private async Task WriteResult(HttpContext httpContext, ExecutionResult result)
{
var json = new DocumentWriter(indent: true).Write(result);
httpContext.Response.StatusCode = 200;
httpContext.Response.ContentType = "application/json";
await httpContext.Response.WriteAsync(json);
}
private void CheckForErrors(ExecutionResult result)
{
if (result.Errors?.Count > 0)
{
var errors = new List<Exception>();
foreach (var error in result.Errors)
{
var ex = new Exception(error.Message);
if (error.InnerException != null)
{
ex = new Exception(error.Message, error.InnerException);
}
errors.Add(ex);
}
throw new AggregateException(errors);
}
}
}
public static class GraphQlMiddlewareExtensions
{
public static IApplicationBuilder UseGraphQL(this IApplicationBuilder builder)
{
return builder.UseMiddleware<GraphQlMiddleware>();
}
}

With this kind of MiddleWare, I can extend my applications Startup.cs with GraphQL:

app.UseGraphQL();

As you can see, the BookRepository gets passed into this Middleware via constructor injection. The most important part is that line:

var schema = new Schema { Query = new BooksQuery(_bookRepository) };

This is where we create a schema, which is used by the GraphQL engine to provide the data. The schema defines the structure of the data you wanna provide. This is all done in a root type called BooksQuery. This type gets the BookRepostory.

This Query is a GryphType, provided by the GraphQL library. You need to derive from a ObjectGraphType and to configure the schema in the constructor:

public class BooksQuery : ObjectGraphType
{
public BooksQuery(IBookRepository bookRepository)
{
Field<BookType>("book",
arguments: new QueryArguments(
new QueryArgument<StringGraphType>() { Name = "isbn" }),
resolve: context =>
{
var id = context.GetArgument<string>("isbn");
return bookRepository.BookByIsbn(id);
});
Field<ListGraphType<BookType>>("books",
resolve: context =>
{
return bookRepository.AllBooks();
});
}
}

Using the GraphQL library all types used in the Query to define the schema are any kind of GraphTypes, even the BookType:

public class BookType : ObjectGraphType<Book>
{
public BookType()
{
Field(x => x.Isbn).Description("The isbn of the book.");
Field(x => x.Name).Description("The name of the book.");
Field<AuthorType>("author");
}
}

The difference is just the generic ObjectGraphType which is also used for the AuthorType. The properties of the Book, which are simple types like the name or the ISBN are mapped directly with the lambda. The complex typed properties like the Author are mapped via another generic ObjectGraphType, which is ObjectGraphType in that case.

Best ASP.NET Hosting Recommendation

ASPHostPortal.com provides its customers with Plesk Panel, one of the most popular and stable control panels for Windows hosting, as free. You could also see the latest .NET framework, a crazy amount of functionality as well as Large disk space, bandwidth, MSSQL databases and more. All those give people the convenience to build up a powerful site in Windows server. ASPHostPortal.com offers ASP.NET hosting starts from $1/month only. They also guarantees 30 days money back and guarantee 99.9% uptime. If you need a reliable affordable ASP.NET Hosting, ASPHostPortal.com should be your best choice.



ASP.NET Core 2 Hosting - Prepare Your Machine and Get to Know Visual Studio Code for Angular 2 and ASP.NET Core Project

clock July 10, 2018 11:44 by author Kenny

Why so many posts? The idea is to take you from nothing and not only build the application but to detail why it's built in this manner. There are numerous options when it comes to web development and for many readers this tutorial will walk you through two new frameworks and a new code editor so breaking up the content allows for sufficient explanation. In this particular post, you install the tools used throughout the remaining posts. The post also provides a tour of the main Visual Studio Code features used to create the application.

Prepare Your Machine

These are the frameworks and tools to install before writing any code: Node.js and npm; .NET Core (Includes ASP.NET Core); Visual Studio Code; C# Visual Studio Code Extension (Installed from Visual Studio Code)

Node.js and npm

No you aren't writing a Node.js application. However, the framework has become the defacto tooling standard for pre-processing your HTML, JavaScript, and CSS before it hits the browser. For instance, the Angular 2 application is built in TypeScript which requires compilation into JavaScript. Node.js fills this role in the application. As important as Node.js is its package manager, npm. This tool has also become the defacto standard for obtaining web development libraries and tooling. Node.js and npm are included in the same installer available in both a current and LTS (long-term support) version. The LTS version is recommended for most users. Make sure to have node version 4.x.x or higher and npm version 3.x.x or higher. You will check them later while touring Visual Studio Code.

.NET Core

To be clear, this is not the .NET Framework of old. The .NET Core framework is built from the ground up to be cross-platform and fast. This download includes the .NET Core and ASP.NET Core Frameworks as well as the terminal/command line tools used to create the backend in this tutorial. While higher-order features such as Routing, Views, Controllers are similar to their ASP.NET 4.6 counterparts, setting up and configuring an ASP.NET Core application is noticeably different and you will even start it from the terminal/command line. For this tutorial, use the .NET Core Preview 3 SDK. Later in this post, you will check which version is installed. It should be 1.0.0-preview3-x or higher.

Visual Studio Code

Visual Studio Code is one of the newer additions to the Visual Studio family. Forget anything you knew about traditional Visual Studio, this is a different animal entirely. During installation, you can add Visual Studio Code to your PATH variable. This enables the ability to type code . in the terminal/command window and open the current directory in Visual Studio Code.

Get to Know Visual Studio Code

This application is built entirely in Visual Studio Code. While this is not an exhaustive tour, it points out the main features of the editor relevant to building the application and continues setting up the editor for your project.

Explorer Pane

Put simply, this is where your files are listed. You point Visual Studio Code to a directory and this pane lists all the files and folders in that directory, including those that are currently open in the editor. You can create new files or folders directly in the explorer pane and to edit a file, simply click on it and it opens in the editor.

Integrated Terminal

The integreated terminal in Visual Studio Code is exactly that. Instead of switching between your editor and a seperate instance of your terminal/command window, you run commands directly in the editor. This walkthrough exclusively uses the integrated terminal, but of course using a separate terminal/command window works fine as well. Go head and try it out:

Press Ctrl + ` to open the Integrated Terminal
Type node -v then Enter to get the Node.js version. It should be 4.x.xor higher.
Type npm -v then Enter to get the npm version. It should be 3.x.x or higher.
Type dotnet --version then Enter to get the .NET Core SDK verion. It should be 1.0.0-preview3-x or higher.
Press Ctrl + ` to close the Integrated Terminal

If at any point these commands fail, it most likely means that either the framework is not installed or isn't added to your PATH. On windows at least, try restarting to refresh your PATH variable.

Command Palette

If you only remember one keyboard shortcut in Visual Studio Code, it should be Ctrl + Shift + P to open the command palette. The command palette contains almost every operation you want to complete in Visual Studio Code. Just start typing and it filters the list of operations for you. You're fingers never have to leave the keyboard. You still need to install the C# extension (from Microsoft) in Visual Studio Code before you start coding. Try to install it using the command palette. If you get stuck, you can also find it here. These are the key features in Visual Studio Code used during the walkthrough. There are so many other great features, so please read more about them in the Visual Studio Code documentation.

Best ASP.NET Hosting Recommendation

ASPHostPortal.com provides its customers with Plesk Panel, one of the most popular and stable control panels for Windows hosting, as free. You could also see the latest .NET framework, a crazy amount of functionality as well as Large disk space, bandwidth, MSSQL databases and more. All those give people the convenience to build up a powerful site in Windows server. ASPHostPortal.com offers ASP.NET hosting starts from $1/month only. They also guarantees 30 days money back and guarantee 99.9% uptime. If you need a reliable affordable ASP.NET Hosting, ASPHostPortal.com should be your best choice.



ASP.NET Hosting - ASPHostPortal.com :: Using Microsoft Enterprise Library in ASP.NET

clock February 21, 2017 05:45 by author Armend

In this tutorial we will show you how to using Microsoft Enterprise Library is a collection of reusable software components used for  logging, validation, data access, exception handling etc.

Here I am describing how to use Microsoft Enterprise Library for data access.

Step 1: First download the project from
http://entlib.codeplex.com/ URL.
Step 2: Now extract the project to get

Microsoft.Practices.EnterpriseLibrary.Common.dll
Microsoft.Practices.EnterpriseLibrary.Configuration.Design.dll
Microsoft.Practices.EnterpriseLibrary.Data.dll
Microsoft.Practices.ObjectBuilder.dll


And give reference in the Bin directory by Right click on Bin -> Add Reference -> then give the path of these 4 dlls. Then

Step 3: Modification in the web.config for Connection String.

<add name="ASPHostPortalConnection" providerName="System.Data.SqlClient" connectionString="DataSource=ASPHostPortalSQLEXPRESS;Initial Catalog=ASPHostPortal;User ID=sa;Password=admintest;Min Pool Size=10;Max Pool Size=100;Connect Timeout=100"/>


Give the connection string as above where Datasource is your data source name, Initial Catalog is your database name and User ID and Password as in your sql server.

Step 4:

Now it is time to write the code.

Write the below 2 lines in the using block.

using System.Data.Common;
using Microsoft.Practices.EnterpriseLibrary.Data;

Here I am writting some examples how to work on:

public DataTable Read()
    {
        try
        {
            Database db = DatabaseFactory.CreateDatabase("ASPHostPortalConnection");
            DbCommand dbCommand = db.GetStoredProcCommand("[Topics_Return]");
            DataSet dataSet = db.ExecuteDataSet(dbCommand);
            return dataSet.Tables[0];
        }
        catch
        {
            return null;
        }
    }


The above code is a sample that will return a dataset. Here Fewlines4bijuConnection is the connection name and Topics_Return is the stored procedure name that is nothing but a Select statement.
But if the stored procedure is taking parameter then the code will be like:

 public int Save()
    {
        Database db = DatabaseFactory.CreateDatabase("ASPHostPortalConnection");
        DbCommand dbCommand = db.GetStoredProcCommand("Topics_Save");

        db.AddInParameter(dbCommand, "@Subject", DbType.AnsiString, "Here is the subject");
        db.AddInParameter(dbCommand, "@Description", DbType.AnsiString, "Here is the Descriptiont");      
        db.AddInParameter(dbCommand, "@PostedBy", DbType.Int32, 4);       
        db.AddOutParameter(dbCommand, "@Status", DbType.AnsiString, 255);
        try
        {
            db.ExecuteNonQuery(dbCommand);
            return Convert.ToInt32(db.GetParameterValue(dbCommand, "Status"));
        }
        catch
        {
            return 0;
        }
    }

As the code explained above ASPHostPortalConnection is the connection name and Topics_Save is the stored procedure name that is taking 3 (Subject,Description,PostedBy) input parameters and 1(Status) output parameter.

You may give values from textbox, I am here provideing sample values like  "Here is the subject", "Here is the Descriptiont" or you may give the UserID from session, I am here giving 4. The output parameter will give you a string as defined and the code to get the value is

int returnValue=Convert.ToInt32(db.GetParameterValue(dbCommand, "Status"));

you can pass input parameter as below

db.AddInParameter(dbCommand, "@Subject", DbType.AnsiString, "Here is the subject");

DbType.AnsiString since Subject is of string time, you can select different values like AnsiString, DateTime from the Enum as be the parameter type.

The above code describes if you are using any stored procedure.
Below is an example that shows how to use inline SQL statements.

public DataSet GetID(string title)
    {
       DataSet ds=new DataSet();

        try
        {
            Database db = DatabaseFactory.CreateDatabase("ASPHostPortalConnection");
            DbCommand dbCommand = db.GetSqlStringCommand("Select * FROM Topics where UserID=1 and
IsDeleted=0");          
            ds= db.ExecuteDataSet(dbCommand);
           return ds;         
        }
        catch
        {
            return ds;
        }
         return ds;
    }


Happy coding!!

 

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ASP.NET Core - ASPHostPortal.com :: Centralized ASP.NET Core Logging in One Line of Code

clock February 14, 2017 05:32 by author Armend

Centralized ASP.NET Core Logging in One Line of Code

ASP.NET Core comes with some great built-in logging. Framework components such as Routing, MVC and EntityFramework have been updated to support structured logging throughout - for example, when MVC selects a controller and action it includes ActionName in a log event so that later, you can drill down easily to requests hitting a specific action. The framework also adds convenient properties like RequestId to log events by default, making it trivial to zoom in on just the events raised during handling of a particular HTTP request. Setting up truly great application logging in an ASP.NET app has never been easier.

Seq has had first-class support for ASP.NET Core apps through Serilog since the early beta releases.
Just recently, we've taken this a step further. On File > New Project precious time spent configuring libraries can really add up. We want Seq to be so simple to include that there's no reason to put it off until later. That's why we've created a new package, Seq.Extensions.Logging, that gets centralized logging configuration down to just one line of code.

Seq.Extensions.Logging

Here's all it takes to get a new ASP.NET Core app hooked up to Seq. First, add the package:

"dependencies": {
  "Seq.Extensions.Logging": "1.0.1"
}

Then in your Startup class's Configure() method, call AddSeq():

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, 
                      IHostingEnvironment env,
                      ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
{
    loggerFactory.AddSeq("http://localhost:5341");

The AddSeq() method supports a few more parameters including the logging level and API key if one is needed. It can also pull configuration from appsettings.json for simple deployment-time configuration.
Once the logger is configured, you will immediately see some events from the framework on each request. You can add logging to your own code by taking a dependency on Microsoft.Extensions.Logging's ILogger<T>:

class HomeController : Controller 
{
    readonly ILogger<HomeController> _log;

    public HomeController(ILogger<HomeController> log)
    {
        _log = log;
    }

    public IActionResult Index()
    {
        var secret = 42;
        _log.LogInformation("The secret number is {Secret}");
    }
}

Notice that ASP.NET Core logging has full support for message templates, meaning tokens like {Secret} in the log message will be translated into fully-searchable properties in Seq.

Under the hood

The API of Seq.Extensions.Logging is complete: you can comfortably use it all the way through to production without thinking about how any of it works under the hood. But, if you find you need more control over how log events are collected, or if you'd like to use more advanced Serilog features to enrich or filter events, it's easy to migrate over to Serilog.
Under the hood, the package wraps Serilog, the Serilog provider for Microsoft.Extensions.Logging, and the other bits and pieces of plumbing that make Seq and Serilog work together. Replacing AddSeq() with AddSerilog() is straightforward and mechanical, and all of your logging will continue working in exactly the same way.

Levelling up

There's a whole host of interesting details on ASP.NET Core's logging in the official documentation. Taking some time to learn how to use the API can make your application much easier to debug once it's out there in production.
Don't forget to Install-Package Seq.Extensions.Logging and AddSeq() next time you're starting out on ASP.NET Core!



ASP.NET Hosting - ASPHostPortal.com :: JavaScript style setTimeout and setInterval in C#

clock January 31, 2017 05:05 by author Armend

I found JavaScript setTimeout and setInterval functions quite handy for timer like functionality and some time wish I could use that in C# too. In an earlier post I create a C# like timer functionality in JavaScript. Now, I want to do opposite i.e. implement JavaScript setTimeout and setInterval like functionality in C#.
This is can be done very easily using Lamda expressions and Timer. Look at the below utility class -

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
namespace DailyCoding.EasyTimer
{
    public static class EasyTimer
    {
        public static IDisposable SetInterval(Action method, int delayInMilliseconds)
        {
            System.Timers.Timer timer = new System.Timers.Timer(delayInMilliseconds);
            timer.Elapsed += (source, e) =>
            {
                method();
            };

            timer.Enabled = true;
            timer.Start();

            // Returns a stop handle which can be used for stopping
            // the timer, if required
            return timer as IDisposable;
        }

        public static IDisposable SetTimeout(Action method, int delayInMilliseconds)
        {
            System.Timers.Timer timer = new System.Timers.Timer(delayInMilliseconds);
            timer.Elapsed += (source, e) =>
            {
                method();
            };

            timer.AutoReset = false;
            timer.Enabled = true;
            timer.Start();

            // Returns a stop handle which can be used for stopping
            // the timer, if required
            return timer as IDisposable;
        }
    }
}

To use setTimeout this you can simply do -

EasyTimer.SetTimeout(() =>
{
    // --- You code here ---
    // This piece of code will once after 1000 ms delay

}, 1000);

The code will run after 1000 ms delay similarly like JavaScript setTimeout. The function also returns a handle. If you want clearTimeout like functionality, then the simply dispose off the handle.

var stopHandle = EasyTimer.SetTimeout(() =>
{
    // --- You code here ---
    // This piece of code will once after 1000 ms

}, 1000);


// In case you want to clear the timeout

stopHandle.Dispose();
Similarly you can use setInterval as -
EasyTimer.SetInterval(() =>
{
    // --- You code here ---
    // This piece of code will run after every 1000 ms

}, 1000);

and SetInterval also returns a stop handle which you can use for clearInterval like functionality. Just dispose off the handle -

var stopHandle = EasyTimer.SetInterval(() =>
    {
        // --- You code here ---
        // This piece of code will run after every 1000 ms
        // To stop the timer, just dispose off the stop handle

    }, 1000);


// In case you want to clear the interval
stopHandle.Dispose();

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ASPHostPortal.com provides its customers with Plesk Panel, one of the most popular and stable control panels for Windows hosting, as free. You could also see the latest .NET framework, a crazy amount of functionality as well as Large disk space, bandwidth, MSSQL databases and more. All those give people the convenience to build up a powerful site in Windows server. ASPHostPortal.com offers ASP.NET hosting starts from $1/month only. They also guarantees 30 days money back and guarantee 99.9% uptime. If you need a reliable affordable ASP.NET Hosting, ASPHostPortal.com should be your best choice.




ASP.NET Hosting - ASPHostPortal.com :: Dynamically from code behind in asp.net using C#

clock January 24, 2017 11:50 by author Armend

In this example we explain that how to change CSS dynamically from code behind in asp.net using C#. or how to change CSS file programmatically in C# code(back end  code) in asp.net. Some time we have requirement like if user click on or check Lightweight button then Lightweight CSS is apply to the application for these user only same like if user checked or click on Professional button then Professional look is applied to the application for these user only these totally is dynamic and depend on user requirement.


So how to change or switch CSS file dynamically from code behind in asp.net using C#.

ChangeCSSFileDynamically.aspx:


<%@ Page Language="C#" AutoEventWireup="true" CodeBehind="ChangeCSSFileDynamically.aspx.cs"
Inherits="WebApplication1.ChangeCSSFileDynamically" %>

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head id="Head1" runat="server">
    <title>Dynamically change (switch) CSS file programmatically from code behind in ASP.Net</title>
    <link id="lnkCSS" runat="server" href="~/CSS/Lightweight.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
</head>
<body>
    <form id="form1" runat="server">
    <asp:Label ID="Label1" runat="server" Text="This is a Label" CssClass="label"></asp:Label>
    <hr />
    <asp:RadioButton ID="chkLightWeight" runat="server" GroupName="CSSTheme" AutoPostBack="true" Text="LightWeight"
        OnCheckedChanged="chkLightWeight_CheckedChanged1" />
    <asp:RadioButton ID="chkProfessional" runat="server" GroupName="CSSTheme" AutoPostBack="true" Text="Professional"
        OnCheckedChanged="chkProfessional_CheckedChanged1" />
    </form>
</body>
</html>

ChangeCSSFileDynamically.aspx.cs:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;

namespace WebApplication1
{
    public partial class ChangeCSSFileDynamically : System.Web.UI.Page
    {

        protected void chkLightWeight_CheckedChanged1(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            lnkCSS.Attributes["href"] = "~/CSS/Lightweight.css";
        }

        protected void chkProfessional_CheckedChanged1(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            lnkCSS.Attributes["href"] = "~/CSS/Professional.css";
        }
    }
}

Lightweight.css:

body
{
    font-family:Times New Roman;
    font-size:10pt;
}
.label
{
    font-weight:bold;
    color:Purple;
}

Professional.css:

body
{
    font-family:Arial;
    font-size:bold;
}
.label
{
    font-weight:bold;
    color:yellow;
}

Best ASP.NET Core 1.0 Hosting Recommendation

ASPHostPortal.com provides its customers with Plesk Panel, one of the most popular and stable control panels for Windows hosting, as free. You could also see the latest .NET framework, a crazy amount of functionality as well as Large disk space, bandwidth, MSSQL databases and more. All those give people the convenience to build up a powerful site in Windows server. ASPHostPortal.com offers ASP.NET hosting starts from $1/month only. They also guarantees 30 days money back and guarantee 99.9% uptime. If you need a reliable affordable ASP.NET Hosting, ASPHostPortal.com should be your best choice.



ASP.NET Hosting - ASPHostPortal.com :: Creating Help Desk Web Application using ASP.NET Core

clock January 17, 2017 05:28 by author Armend

Suppose you work for a small to midsize company that employs 50-100 workers. The Help Desk -- a subsidiary of the Information Services Division -- is in charge of trouble tickets regarding general PC issues such as email, viruses, network issues, etc. Initially, the Help Desk team stored this information in Excel spreadsheets, but as the company has grown, managing these spreadsheets has become tedious and time consuming.

The Help Desk has asked you to devise a more efficient solution that could be developed internally, saving the company money. As you start to think about it, the following requirements are apparent: fields for the submitter's first and last name, as well as their email address. You'll also need combo boxes for indicating ticket severity (low, medium, high), department, status (new, open, resolved), employee working on the issue, as well as an area for comments. Of all the solutions available, creating an internal help desk Web application with ASP.NET is relatively simple.

In the following article, we'll see how to implement these features in an ASP.NET help desk Web application using a database-driven approach,
Creating the JavaScript File
Because creating the JavaScript file is the easiest of the work left, we'll do this next. From the Solution Explorer, follow these steps:

Creating the Help Desk Class

Now that we have our data coming in, we need to be able to record a help desk ticket submission. We need to create an event handler in a class to handle it. Let's first create a help desk class by doing the following:

  •     Right click the project solution.
  •     Choose Add>New Item.
  •     In the Add New Item window, select Class.cs.
  •     In the name text field, type "HelpDesk" and then click Add.

Double click HelpDesk.cs from the Solution Explorer, which will show the empty class as shown below:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
namespace HelpDesk
{
    public class HelpDesk
    {
    }
}

We need to import three libraries as shown below:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
namespace HelpDesk
{
    public class HelpDesk
    {
    }
}

The first library (System.Data) allows us to work with stored procedures in ADO.NET, the second (System.Configuration) allows us to reference a connection key from configuration file and the last (System.Data.SqlClient) one allows us to connect to SQL Server.


About ASPHostPortal.com:


ASPHostPortal.com is The Best, Cheap and Recommended ASP.NET & Linux Hosting. ASPHostPortal.com has ability to support the latest Microsoft, ASP.NET, and Linux technology, such as: such as: WebMatrix, Web Deploy, Visual Studio, Latest ASP.NET Version, Latest ASP.NET MVC Version, Silverlight and Visual Studio Light Switch, Latest MySql version, Latest PHPMyAdmin, Support PHP, etc. Their service includes shared hosting, reseller hosting, and Sharepoint hosting, with speciality in ASP.NET, SQL Server, and Linux solutions. Protection, trustworthiness, and performance are at the core of hosting operations to make certain every website and software hosted is so secured and performs at the best possible level.



Cheap ASP.NET 4.5 Hosting

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Success for us is something that is continually experienced, not something that is reached. For us it is all about the experience – more than the journey. Life is a continual experience. We see the Internet as being an incredible amplifier to the experience of life for all of us. It can help humanity come together to explode in knowledge exploration and discussion. It is continual enlightenment of new ideas, experiences, and passions


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